Water Fountain Principles
Water fountain principles are important to know, especially when you consider the construction principles, the structural design and the components that make up the fountain itself.
It is important when considering the installation of any significant fountain arrangement to pay close attention to well tried and tested principles. These have been developed, by Oase, over years of installing both small and extremely large fountain displays of all kinds.
The Important Water Fountain Principles
Please refer to the sketches shown as you read through this important list regarding the water fountain principles.
1 Basin… Smaller basins are usually made from plastic, high-grade steel or similar materials, while larger basins are manufactured from steel reinforced concrete. To avoid major mistakes an expert fountain technician should be consulted at the planning stage. Proportion and size in relation to fountain height as well as basin and water depth are important criteria. The requisite mechanism should be housed in an appropriate depression covered with a grate.
2 Pump room… If a normal suction pump is to be dry mounted, so that the water can be fed to the pump by gravity, an underground pump chamber is necessary. Therefore the pump must be installed below the water level. Also cellars or lower rooms are suitable, but they must at least have an outlet to the drain.
3 Fountain nozzles and fittings… The fountain fittings model the water into defined forms and create movement. Sculptures, spouts and feeds are also included in this group of components. The technical data for water and pressure demand must be taken into account at the beginning of planning the pipe system and choosing of the pump.
4 Fountain pump… The fountain pump is the driving force and heart of any fountain installation. The pump type must be appropriate for the particular use (wet or dry mounting) and for demanding continuous operation. The pump capacity results from the water and pressure demand of the requisite fountain fittings in addition to any eventual obstructions in the pipes, water distributors and fittings.
5 Suction filter… The suction filter, which is mounted to the suction hose, prevents dirt from being drawn into the pump- nozzle circulation system. To achieve sufficiently long intervals between cleaning, the surface area of the suction filter should be correspondingly large. Several suction filters can also be connected in parallel, and are available in different sizes.
6 Basin floor and wall inlets… The basin floor and wall inlets serve as watertight inlets through floors and walls for suction and pressure pipes as well as all other feed-pipes. Made from highly corrosion–resistant material such as highgrade V4A steel or tombac, they are cemented into the concrete with a watertight concrete flange. For basins with foil liners a supplementary foil clamp flange is available. For particularly demanding situations and for the prevention of soaking through to adjacent structures a special design is necessary
7 Suction pipe… The suction pipe enables the dry-mounted centrifugal pump to draw water out of the fountain basin or water reservoir. Bearing in mind that the flow speed should not exceed 2 m/sec., the dimension of the pipe should correspond to the delivery volume of the pump.
8 Cut off and regulating valve… A cut off and regulating valve serves, on the one hand to shut off the suction or pressure pipe, for example during the repair or removal of a pump, and on the other hand as a throttle to control the fountain height. While a centrifugal pump is running the suction pipe throttle should remain fully open in order to prevent cavitation of the pump.
9 Pressure pipe… The pressure pipe enables the water supplied by the pump to be fed to an outlet, fountain attachment or nozzle combination. Bearing in mind that the flow speed should not exceed 3 m/sec., the dimension of the pipe should correspond to the delivery volume of the pump.
10 Water distributor… The water distributor has the job of dividing the water supplied by the pump into several branched flows. It should be adequately large in order to keep the frictional resistance low and to avoid a lot of turbulence. Regulating valves can be installed on the outlets of the water distributor in order to adjust different volumes of branched flows or fountain heights.
11 Overflow drain fitting… The overflow drain fitting is a kind of stand pipe valve and is an economical solution for overflow and drainage. With the stand pipe inserted it allows excess basin water (rainwater) to drain out over the overflow crown into the drain. The basin can be emptied by removing the stand pipe.
12 Floor drain with dirt screen… The floor drain with dirt screen, combined with a drain valve, serves to empty the basin. It is frequently used together with the combined overflow and in-built wall fitting. The screwed on dirt sieve prevents large particles of dirt from getting into the drain pipe.
13 Combined overflow and in-built wall fitting… The combined overflow and in-built wall fitting is usually cemented into the upright basin wall. It is used to drain off the superfluous basin water (rainwater), for filling and replenishing with fresh water and for the mounting of a water level sensor in combination with an “automatic water level control”.
14 Freshwater feed fitting… The freshwater feed fitting is cemented into the bottom of the basin and serves to fill and replenish the basin with freshwater (feed with a distance of double the feed nominal diameter but at least 20 mm above the water level).
15 Overflow outlet pipe… The overflow outlet pipe in combination with the overflow outlet fitting serve to drain the over- flow of water and empty it into the drain.
16 Overflow pipe… The overflow pipe together with the combined overflow and inbuilt wall fitting is used to drain superfluous basin water (rainwater) into the drain.
17 Outlet pipe… The outlet pipe combined with the floor drain with dirt screen and the emptying valve serves to drain off the basin water during emptying.
18 Freshwater supply pipe… The freshwater supply pipe together with the freshwater feed fitting or the combined overflow and in-built wall fitting serves to fill and replenish the basin. The replenishing of evaporated water is mostly done automatically via the “electronic water level control”.
19 Solenoid valve… The solenoid valve is controlled by the “electronic water level control” and when opened serves to fill and replenish fresh water.
20 Cable inlet fitting… The cable inlet fitting, at the end of the cable protection pipe in the bottom of the basin or cemented into the basin wall, serves as a watertight inlet for the electric cable.
21 Cable protection pipe… The cable protection pipe in combination with the cable inlet fitting prevents mechanical damage to the electric cable and enables problem free changing of the cable.
22 Submersible terminal box… The submersible terminal box is for connecting and disconnecting electric cables. It enables problem-free connecting and disconnecting of electric cables, without the necessity to empty the basin.
23 Cable protection rail… The cable protection rail enables the safe and professional laying of electrical cables in the basin and protects them from mechanical damage.
24 Underwater spot lighting… Illuminating fountains and water displays with underwater spot lighting during the evening and at night creates an even more outstanding effect. By using colour discs and colour changers, further special effects can be achieved.
25 Electronic switching and control units… The electronic switching and control units are the switching and control centre of fountain installations. It comprises of all components that are necessary in order to ensure electrical safety, personal safety and equipment safety, as well as the automatic switching on and off of pumps and lighting. Frequently an electronic water level control unit is integrated.
26 Cover grate The cover grate protects the sunken workings from touch and damage. Primarily it prevents all electrical equipment from touch and is an indispensable requirement for all public fountain installations.